Evidence

Six separate trials have helped to inform the development of the FAME Program. Please refer to the appendix for references. Major findings are documented below.

Categories Improvements
Balance Function 2-5 points increase on the Berg Balance scale
Balance Reflexes 25 ms faster
Falls 1/3 less falls over 12 months
Walking Distance 25% further (6 minute Walk Test)
Balance Confidence Increased 6-10 points (Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale)
Cardiovascular Fitness 10% increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)
Muscle Strength 20-25% stronger
Hip Bone Density Maintenance versus 3% bone loss in controls (DXA); improved bone structure (pQCT)
Memory and Thinking Improvement in aspects of executive functioning including working memory, selective attention, and attentional conflict

* number references go here (?), to use with superscripts (or in-text citations i.e. author/year?) in the table *

  1. Andersson, A., Kamwendo, K., Seiger, A., & Appelros, P. (2006). Journal of rehabilitation medicine: How to identify potential fallers in a stroke unit: Validity indexes of four test methods Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1080/16501970500478023
  2. Aufdemkampe, G., Angevaren, M., Vanhees, L., Verhaar, H. J. J., & Aleman, A. (2008). Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD005381.
  3. Barker, M. & Tang, Ada. Aerobic Exercise After Stroke. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.canadianstroke.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/CPSR_Guide_Clinicians-English_WEB.pdf
  4. Batchelor, F., Hill, K., Mackintosh, S., & Said, C. (2010). What works in falls prevention after stroke? Stroke, 41(8), 1715-1722.
  5. Beavan, J. (2015). Update on management options for dysphagia after acute stroke. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 11(Sup2), 10-19. doi:10.12968/bjnn.2015.11.Sup2.10
  6. Beghi, E., D’Alessandro, R., Beretta, S., Consoli, D., Crespi, V., Delaj, L.. . Epistroke Group. (2011). Incidence and predictors of acute symptomatic seizures after stroke. Neurology, 77(20), 1785.
  7. Dal Bello-Haas, V., Klassen, L., et al. (2011). Psychometric Properties of Activity, Self-Efficacy, and Quality-of-Life Measures in Individuals with Parkinson Disease. Physiotherapy Canada 63(1): 47-57.
  8. Flansbjer, U. B., Holmback, A. M., et al. (2005). Reliability of gait performance tests in men and women with hemiparesis after stroke. J Rehabil Med 37(2): 75-82.
  9. Kennedy, D. M., Stratford, P. W., et al. (2005). Assessing stability and change of four performance measures: a longitudinal study evaluating outcome following total hip and knee arthroplasty.” BMC Musculoskelet Disord 6: 3.
  10. Nys, G. M. S., van Zandvoort, M. J. E., de Kort, P. L. M., Jansen, B. P. W., de Haan, E. H. F., & Kappelle, L. J. (2007). Cognitive disorders in acute stroke: Prevalence and clinical determinants. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23(5-6), 408-416. doi:10.1159/000101464
  11. Outermans, J. C., van Peppen, R. P., et al. (2010). “Effects of a high-intensity task-oriented training on gait performance early after stroke: a pilot study.” Clin Rehabil 24(11): 979-987
  12. Pendlebury, S. (2009). Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and poststroke dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol, 8(11), 1006-1018. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70236-4
  13. Perera, S., Mody, S., et al. (2006). “Meaningful change and responsiveness in common physical performance measures in older adults.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 54(5): 743-749.
  14. Pescatello, L. S., & American College of Sports Medicine [ACSM]. (2014). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  15. Schenkman, M., Cutson, T. M., et al. (1997). Reliability of impairment and physical performance measures for persons with Parkinson’s disease. Phys Ther 77(1): 19-27
  16. Tang, A., Eng, J., & Rand, D. (2012). Relationship between perceived and measured changes in walking after stroke. Journal of neurologic physical therapy: JNPT, 36(3), 115.
  17. Tilson, J. K., Sullivan, K. J., et al. (2010). Meaningful gait speed improvement during the first 60 days poststroke: minimal clinically important difference. Phys Ther 90(2): 196-208.
  18. Woodward, S. (2014). Managing urinary incontinence after stroke. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 10(Sup2), 25-31. doi:10.12968/bjnn.2014.10.Sup2.25